Alternative question: An alternative question is the one in which you ask the hearer to choose between two options. For example, Would you have tea or coffee? Will you call me today or tomorrow?
Additive phrase: An additive phrase is an expression that is separated from the main sentence with a set of commas. Although an additive phrase seems to be part of the main subject, it does not compound the subject and does not change the number of the verb. Phrases such as along with, as well as, together with, etc. are additive phrases. For example, John, along with his friends, is attending the dinner tonight. Mehal, together with Herera, is making all the arrangements.
Exception: ‘And’ is the only additive phrase that compounds the main subject and changes the number of the verb.
Adjective clause: An adjective clause is that part of a sentence that modifies the noun clause. In most cases an adjective clause begins with a relative pronoun such as who, whom, which or that or an adverb such as why or where. Foe example, The people, whose names are listed, will be attending the conference today. I know someone whose mother had met the great prime minister of the United States of America.
Antecedent: The word for which the pronoun is used is called an antecedent. For example, Jessica took the book. She kept it on the table. In this sentence, Jessica is the antecedent for she, and book is the antecedent for it. Additionally, a pronoun can also act as an antecedent for another pronoun. For example, She likes to drive her car. She is the antecedent for her.
Rule: Ensure that you write the antecedent always before the pronoun for which it is the antecedent.
Disjunct: The attitude of the speaker in a sentence is described by a disjunct. For example, Luckily, we managed to escape the rain on time. In this sentence, luckily is the disjunct because it shows us the speaker’s attitude.
Embedded question: This refers to a statement that asks a question indirectly, i.e. not in a general question form and a question mark. An embedded question can occur in a statement or as a question within a question. For example, I don’t remember what he did. Robin hasn’t decided whether he should eat. Can you tell me what you did? The phrases what he did, whether he should eat and what you did are embedded questions.
Em Dash: This dash is almost the size of an m and is longer than the en dash. Hardly found in formal writing now, an em dash is used to indicate an added emphasis, a sudden change of thought or an interruption. It can also be used in place of parenthetical commas (or simply parenthesis). For example, My agent—Neil Thornton—helped me with the case. My agreement with Johnson is fair—I give him money and he gives me resources.
Rule: Use Ctrl + Alt + – to enter an em dash or insert it from Symbols.
En Dash: This dash is almost the size of an n and is longer than the hyphen. It is used to indicate periods of time (where you may use to) and to combine open compounds or nouns holding the same importance. For example, 1946–1988, June–December, VIC–NSW border, school–college event.
Rule: Use Ctrl + – to enter an en dash or insert it from Symbols.